Boise State accepts Mountain West invite, begins play in 2011; Broncos likely won't play Vandals in 2011

By Chadd Cripe

A few notes from Boise State's press conference:

Athletic director Gene Bleymaier expects a nine-game conference football schedule. That leaves Boise State with non-conference games against Mississippi, Tulsa and Toledo in 2011. That means most likely no Idaho. Boise State was non-committal about extending the rivalry in the future.

Boise State hasn't negotiated the entry fee but president Bob Kustra said it will be reasonable. We have been estimated somewhere in the neighborhood of $1 million. The fee will be paid over a period of years.

Football coach Chris Petersen wasn't exactly enthusiastic. Typical for him, he didn't want to talk about something that is still a year away. He did say that every coach at Boise State now has a more difficult job.

Bleymaier said this will provide an extra push to expand Bronco Stadium. The Broncos should draw much better against this schedule.

Kustra defended Boise State's academics. He said his staff has researched how Boise State fits academically and the school is middle of the pack in that league. He said in every category they researched, Boise State was ahead of at least a couple Mountain West schools.

We'll have extensive coverage in tomorrow's newspaper and more on Sunday.


Some reaction from the Mountain West:

Utah president Michael Young (from Salt Lake Tribune): "They have a very strong athletic program and are growing academically and are in a growing part of the state. We are excited to have them in the conference."

Utah football coach Kyle Whittingham (statement): "They have an exceptional program and will strengthen the position of the Mountain West Conference on a national level."

San Diego State president Stephen Weber (from school website): "The Mountain West Conference has been a nationally competitive conference for several years now. The addition of Boise State makes us that much stronger. ... Boise State has an excellent athletic program beyond just football, which is a national powerhouse. I support this proactive move by the conference to add a nationally respected program at a time of considerable upheaval within collegiate athletics."


Quick notes from commissioner Craig Thompson's media call:

Decision to invite Boise State was unanimous. "We may be done (with expansion) but we anticipate continuing the dialogue."

No decision on nine-game conference football schedule. "I would like to see nine, but I don't have a vote in the matter. My stance is you're in a league together and you play everybody."

Keeping the other nine members together was a consideration here. "We're trying to build as good a place to land and to stay for those nine that we can. That was something that was discussed frequently. 'Let's become as strong as we can and become as attractive as we can if we are in fact recruiting additional members.' "

Hasn't invited anyone else, but has reached out to other schools, including Big 12 teams. "I've had conversations last night and through this morning ... with several institutions. I know that both board members and athletic directors are reaching out similarly just to get a sense of where institutions' minds are these days."

Mountain West has liberal exit policy. Deadline is Sept. 1 for 2011. "I'm not aware that any are (candidates to leave) but I would not be shocked if some were going to be approached by other people. Today's decision was a part of that. We have strengthened the league."

No plans to approach other WAC schools. "At this time it isn't envisioned any additional Western Athletic Conference members would be approached."

Mountain West can re-negotiate $12 million per year TV payment from Versus and CBS College Sports, but can't opt out. Thompson expects Boise State to increase that revenue. "I can't put a price tag on that, but they're a great value."


Some notes from my conversation with WAC commissioner Karl Benson:

The league has agreed that Boise State still will receive the bonus for qualifying for a Bowl Championship Series game if the Broncos earn one this year. That is about $3 million.

Boise State still will forfeit its other league revenue from 2010-11, which likely will be $1 million to $1.5 million.

The WAC has had conversations with other schools but has no immediate expansion plans. The league presidents likely will talk next week. "With so many moving parts out there, I think everyone wants to let the dust settle and see what the availability of teams will be when everything else around us gets done."

He expects to keep the other eight members, including Louisiana Tech. "I'm expecting the remaining WAC membership to band together and fill the holes that need to be filled and move onward."

Here's Benson's official response:

"While I am disappointed that Boise State has elected to leave the WAC, I am very optimistic that the WAC will continue to have success in the future and that this change in membership will allow us to build even a better WAC for the future. The WAC has been very good for Boise State and Boise State has been very good for the WAC. But it’s not the first time a school has left the WAC and each time it has happened, a school or group of schools have stepped up and performed at a level that brings the WAC national credibility. We have a very strong foundation of schools going forward and others that are showing vast improvement in their athletics programs, and I expect that one of these teams will do just that – step up and perform. And as I have said many times – when schools join the WAC, they get better and I am sure that too will be the case regardless of the team or teams that will join the WAC in the coming months. The WAC Board of Directors will begin immediately to evaluate possible replacement teams. However, a specific timeline has yet to be determined as we continue to follow the changing landscape of intercollegiate athletics that is currently underway."


Humanitarian Bowl executive director Kevin McDonald isn't sure what will happen with his game. He expects major changes to bowl agreements — most of which were just signed — as conference realignment plays out.

The NCAA has determined a maximum number of bowl bids for each conference based on recent history.

"When the NCAA reviews the new alignment of the conferences, there will be a lot of discussion about what bowls should be aligned with what conferences and how many of them," McDonald said. "I don't know quite how important all these contracts are going to be."

The Humanitarian Bowl has four-year contracts with the WAC and Mid-American Conference. The game was founded largely by Boise State and is supported largely by Broncos fans even though Boise State hasn't played in the game since 2005.

"Our first option would be to always want to be part of Boise State, to be in the same conference as Boise State," McDonald said.


Boise State accepted an invitation to join the Mountain West Conference on Friday — four days after the league delayed its decision while waiting for more information on other conference changes around the country.

Boise State will join the league July 1, 2011. That will allow the Broncos' accomplishments from 2008, 2009 and 2010 to count toward the league's quest for an automatic bid to the Bowl Championship Series in 2012-13.

Boise State is the 10th member of the Mountain West, which was formed in 1999 when eight teams broke away from the WAC. TCU joined the league in 2005.

“We are pleased and excited to welcome Boise State University to the Mountain West Conference," commissioner Craig Thompson said in a press release. "Since our inception just 11 short years ago, the Mountain West has experienced tremendous success, and the addition of Boise State will further enhance that strength. The MWC continues to strategize regarding potential membership scenarios and bringing Boise State into the Conference is an important part of that evolution.”

The move is a victory for Boise State president Bob Kustra, who has been pushing for the move since 2003. Boise State was a contender when TCU was selected.

“The invitation to join the Mountain West Conference reflects the excellence that Boise State University has demonstrated academically and athletically," Kustra said in the release. "It will be a privilege to compete and partner with such a successful group of member institutions. This move is in the best interests of Boise State’s future, and the university is excited to be part of one of the nation’s most outstanding conferences.”

Added athletic director Gene Bleymaier: “Membership in the Mountain West Conference is a milestone moment for the entire Bronco sports program. The new alignment will help our student-athletes by minimizing distant travel and developing more intermountain competition. The Western Athletic Conference has been an integral part of our growth and success. We will always be proud of our affiliation with those schools and thankful for the opportunities.”

A media teleconference is set for noon. Boise State has a press conference at 2 p.m.

Here's the story I did breaking down the Mountain West TV contract.

Here's a look at the Mountain West members. This information was in the paper last week, before the latest APR scores came out. I'll update those when I get a chance:

Air Force Falcons
Location: United States Air Force Academy, Colo. (near Colorado Springs, population 380,307)
Enrollment: 4,400
Athletics budget: $33 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Falcon Stadium (46,692)
Attendance: 37,174
Record: 33-29 (22-18 MWC)
Bowl record: 1-2
BCS average: 63.2
BCS appearances: None
Academic Progress Rate (APR): 983
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Clune Arena (5,858)
Attendance: 3,673
Record: 86-72 (31-49)
RPI average: 152.4
NCAA appearances: 2006 (0-1)
APR: 962

BYU Cougars
Location: Provo, Utah (118,581)
Enrollment: 33,278
Athletics budget: $35.6 million*
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: LaVell Edwards Stadium (64,045)
Attendance: 62,313
Record: 49-15 (34-6)
Bowl record: 3-2
BCS average: 25.4
BCS appearances: None
APR: 942
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Marriott Center (22,700)
Attendance: 13,487
Record: 126-39 (64-16)
RPI average: 32.4
NCAA appearances: 2007 (0-1), 2008 (0-1), 2009 (0-1), 2010 (1-1)
APR: 991

Colorado State Rams
Location: Fort Collins, Colo. (136,509)
Enrollment: 25,500
Athletics budget: $21.5 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Hughes Stadium (34,400)
Attendance: 23,995
Record: 23-38 (12-28)
Bowl record: 1-1
BCS average: 83.2
BCS appearances: None
APR: 944
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Moby Arena (8,745)
Attendance: 3,892
Record: 65-90 (21-59)
RPI average: 170.6
NCAA appearances: None
APR: 859

New Mexico Lobos
Location: Albuquerque, N.M. (521,999)
Enrollment: 25,767
Athletics budget: $32 million*
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: University Stadium (38,723)
Attendance: 30,676
Record: 26-35 (16-24)
Bowl record: 1-1
BCS average: 80.2
BCS appearances: None
APR: 932
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: The Pit (18,018)
Attendance: 13,787
Record: 107-55 (49-31)
RPI average: 84.2
NCAA appearances: 2010 (1-1)
APR: 909

San Diego State Aztecs
Location: San Diego (1,279,329)
Enrollment: 35,887
Athletics budget: $34.5 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Qualcomm Stadium (54,000)
Attendance: 28,446
Record: 18-42 (13-27)
Bowl record: 0-0
BCS average: 94.8
BCS appearances: None
APR: 914
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Cox Arena (12,414)
Attendance: 7,387
Record: 117-51 (54-26)
RPI average: 51.2
NCAA appearances: 2006 (0-1), 2010 (0-1)
APR: 916

TCU Horned Frogs
Location: Fort Worth, Texas (703,073)
Enrollment: 8,865
Athletics budget: $46.5 million*
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Amon G. Carter Stadium (44,358)
Attendance: 32,355
Record: 53-11 (33-7)
Bowl record: 4-1
BCS average: 23.8
BCS appearances: 2010 Fiesta (L)
APR: 962
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Daniel-Meyer Coliseum (7,201)
Attendance: 3,806
Record: 60-94 (22-58)
RPI average: 204
NCAA appearances: None
APR: 912

UNLV Rebels
Location: Las Vegas (558,383)
Enrollment: 28,000
Athletics budget: $31.9 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Sam Boyd Stadium (36,800)
Attendance: 22,412
Record: 16-43 (8-32)
Bowl record: 0-0
BCS average: 96.6
BCS appearances: None
APR: 929
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Thomas & Mack Center (18,500)
Attendance: 12,367
Record: 120-47 (54-26)
RPI average: 48.2
NCAA appearances: 2007 (2-1), 2008 (1-1), 2010 (0-1)
APR: 920

Utah Utes
Location: Salt Lake City (181,698)
Enrollment: 29,251
Athletics budget: $27.8 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Rice-Eccles Stadium (45,017)
Attendance: 43,621
Record: 47-17 (28-12)
Bowl record: 5-0
BCS average: 39.0
BCS appearances: 2009 Sugar (W). The Utes previously won the 2005 Fiesta Bowl.
APR: 954
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Huntsman Center (15,000)
Attendance: 9,965
Record: 81-76 (38-42)
RPI average: 111
NCAA appearances: 2009 (0-1)
APR: 964

Wyoming Cowboys
Location: Laramie, Wyo. (27,523)
Enrollment: 13,207
Athletics budget: $25 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: War Memorial Stadium (30,514)
Attendance: 19,935
Record: 26-34 (14-26)
Bowl record: 1-0
BCS average: 80.2
BCS appearances: None
APR: 939
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Arena-Auditorium (15,000)
Attendance: 5,464
Record: 72-86 (27-53)
RPI average: 167.8
NCAA appearances: None
APR: 884

Boise State Broncos
Location: Boise (population: 205,314)
Enrollment: 19,667
Athletics budget: $25.8 million
Football (since 2005)
Stadium: Bronco Stadium (33,500)
Attendance: 31,192
Record: 58-8 (38-2 WAC)
Bowl record: 2-3
BCS average: 15.2
BCS appearances: 2007 Fiesta (W), 2010 Fiesta (W)
Academic Progress Rate (APR): 966
Men’s basketball (since 2005-06)
Arena: Taco Bell Arena (12,380)
Attendance: 4,152
Record: 90-68 (40-40)
RPI average: 137.6
NCAA appearances: 2008 (0-1)
APR: 962

* indicates budget based on U.S. Department of Education figures (others were provided by schools)
Note: BCS and RPI averages based on information provided by and

1276296691 Boise State accepts Mountain West invite, begins play in 2011; Broncos likely won't play Vandals in 2011 Idaho Statesman Copyright 2014 Idaho Statesman . All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Hey Chad...

Is there any indication on whether or not our Broncos are the only team the MWC is going to add or does the MWC like the idea of staying a ten team conference? Thanks


hel.lo conference that just might challenge us and allow us to grow. MWC definately wants to strenghthen its case for the remenant of the Big 12 and this does that. I think when everything shakes out in '12 that BSU will belong to a BCS MWC


How many of these MWC members will actually be there when BSU arrives in 2011? Is BSU's arrival growing the conference or replacing future defections?


All of them the other conference moves dont take place until 2012

No Mountain Channel

Being a Dish Network customer that doesn't get the Mountain Channel, I guess I am going to watch more Vandal games on local TV.

TV Programming

Does Dish have Versus and CBS Sports channels? That is who holds the contract... mtn. was absorbed by Versus I believe.


Dish will get the package.... Have fun watching the vandals as long as they have a team....Ch2 will get its share of lawyers watching on saturdays.......

A huge plus all around.

DISH has Versus and CBS Sports, but not the mtn. I am personally changing over to Direct TV when my contract runs out in Aug. next year, right in time for the football season. In the MWC the Broncos will have a lot more exposure for the fans compared to now, especially when it comes to basketball.
I see NO disadvantages in this move.


BSU's APR rating is the same as the Air Force Academy and just below BYU......


Funny you should say that. BSU is not even close to USAFA. On June 9, 2010, the NCAA issued it's report that the Air Force football team has the second-highest multi-year Academic Progress Rate (APR) of any team in the Football Bowl Subdivision. Here are the standings.

Top 5 FBS Schools

Rutgers - 992

Air Force - 988

Rice -- 987

Northwestern -- 986

Duke - 983

Mountain West Conference

Air Force -- 988

TCU -- 968

Utah -- 949

Colorado State - 945

BYU - 940

Hmm barney

I think he was speaking of the football teams, not entire programs. check out BSU football APR and get back to us.

APR is the APR

I did identify the football subdivision. BYU is no where close to the USAFA. Read the report and get back to me.

"BYU" -- did you mean "BSU"?

BYU's numbers are severely skewed by the two-year mission service most male BYU students serve. This artifact in the data makes their four-year grad rates plummet. If that were corrected for, BYU's APR would be much higher than it is. Having an APR just under BYU's isn't a good thing, unless you're sending almost half your student population off to do charity work for two years.


BSU's APR is 974. Maybe second best in the MWC, but look at the scores of the top 5.

There are 9 football teams between Air Force and BSU.

no matter how you slice it, BSU is in some good company here.

1. Rutgers- 992

2. Air Force- 988

3. Rice- 987

4. Northwestern- 986

5. Duke- 983

6. Notre Dame- 978

- Miami (FL)- 978

8. Stanford- 976

9. Vanderbilt- 975

- Ohio State- 975

- Northern Illinois- 975

12. Penn State- 974

- Boise State- 974

You're Right

BSU is in very good company. Don't get me wrong. I'm a BSU Alum and fan, but I have a son at the academy and have grown to respect and admire that program also. It shouldn't be to bad though, I can still shout go big blue. Just don't ask me if I mean orange or silver.


my brother quarterbacked AFA in the 1962 Gator Bowl. Really pumped that we get them here every other year!

good for BSU! now they wont

good for BSU! now they wont have to play the one team that has scored 135 points against them in just the last three games, and still managed to loose all three by a combined margin of only 20 points, the one and only team so hapless on defense that they can outscore BSU in the second half of each of these games and from the second quarter on in their last game and still lose, the one team that has given them more trouble than anyone else, the team they shared the WAC title with in 2005.

Certainly ski doc

but now we ahve to play a team that just 2 years abgo beat us in a bowl game, and last year played us tough in a BCS bowl game. Image that type of ferocity every year.... something we dont get around the ole WAC Utah, BYU TCU heck even wyoming.... All good games all contenders... all about to be smacked in the mouth by BSU.

Seriously??? Nevada?

Skidoc -
Are you talking about the same team that when given the opportunity to help the WAC's credibility by playing an OOC opponent or in a bowl game, they have laid an absolute EGG!

well well well

skidope returns to make (surprise) another ridiculous post. what a clod. certainly boise state must be relieved that we don't have nevada every year. especially since we went 14-0 last year destroying oregon along the way and beating tcu in the fiesta bowl. take another 6 month break from the blog. come back after the nevada game this year. low IQ skidope.

Too bad they won't be

Too bad they won't be playing a Mtn West schedule already. By the way- Looks like work is going to be picking up for me... Everyone is going to be needing Directv installed!!!!!! HAHAHAHA

And the WAC...

...teams breath a giant sigh of relief. They're all contenders for the WAC Championship now.


Hey Chad, How about an article about what this will mean for watching games on television? Will Cable One pick up the channel televising the games?



Statesman already did a big article on how this affect TV. I'm sure by football season some things may change.

KIBBIE DOME FAREWELL TOUR 2010!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Isn't the Kibbie "Dome" more like a glorified

Quonset hut? Renowned as the smallest capacity “stadium” in all of Division 1-A?


Cableone does have the MTN station, I think you have to have an expanded package though. The basic package does not have it.

Like I care. Let them interview Conan O'Brien too.


The only things I know about the internet are that it puts all the world's knowledge, entertainment and opinion before your open eyes.

And it cheeses your melon bad, check out the rage man.


awesome for many reasons
1. road trips to vegas every other year

2. no more 13-0 seasons maybe, so games will actually be worth buying a ticket to a not a blowout by the half

3. no more mark johnson commentating hahaha

4. maybe more bcs teams will actually play bsu now

No more 13-0 seasons?

What exactly makes you think BSU will lose to a MWC team?

Have to agree

Mark Johnson is pretty bad. The only commentator I have ever heard say, "That's a coverage sack" when the QB throws the ball away. And here I always thought a sack was when the defense tackles the QB before he throws . . .


Does BSU take their bowl game with them to the MWC?

please no!

Leave it for the WAC. Idaho needs a place to play. BSU hopefully will never play in that game again!!!

Will gladly give up a BCS Bowl for a better regular season.

In the MWC things will change for the BSU, of course:

1. Will be very hard to PLAN and EXPECT an undefeated season and a probable BCS bid.
2. The regular season will be much more interesting, where a conference championship will mean a lot, for a change.
3. Several GREAT rivalries will be created.
4. A conference championship will probably relatively soon result in automatic BCS qualification, so the pressure of undefeated or bust will disappear.
5. Every game in football and BASKETBALL will be available on TV.
6. Even easier to recruit good players to both programs.
7. Better credibility academically, and athletically.

Not hard for BSU

I would agree to all the points except I think we can continue to expect undefeated seasons too. BSU will step up to the challenge. Look at the last 13 MWC games, BSU won all but one and that one by a measily 1 point to a very good TCU. MWC will be better games, but still no contest for BSU. They will just run the table on another conference. I would expect perhaps some close ones early on until Peterson gets the handle on them all.

Stadium expansion NOW

Kustra, We need to expand Bronco stadium NOW! We are going to be the second smallest stadium in the MWC just ahead of Wyoming! The averge stadium size in MWC is 43,883. We need to get Bronco stadium to >45K preferably 50K ASAP. There is much revenue to be made there when BYU and Utah come to town (sell outs for sure) Also this will allow BSU to afford some larger named home games out of conference. Bronco Faithfull, it's time to bone up and support this Football program. Lets show the MWC that we mean it, that we're just not going to put it into cruise control. We are now the small school in the conference, but we need to keep our underdog attitude. Beautiful day indeed.


They won't need anymore seats if they don't win. This is a town that only supports winners. Remember the days of the Big Sky in the 80's & 90's? In fact, look at our recent basketball teams, they won but not how the fans wanted them to. I wonder how many Bronco fans will show up in November if their record is 7&4?

Any More Seats!

They won't need any more seats if they continue to run up the scores the the MWC teams and bore eveyone into leaving by the half. Some close scores might be a better bet to keep things interesting. ha ha ha.


This is a town that supports winners and not losers. The losers not supported were the basketball team last year which reflects this belief. When you are on the top everyone is your #1 fan and if you lose a couple of games they go away as fast as they can, running to the next undefeated team. There are some great loyal fans who have been here for a long time and will stay that way even if losses come. Some of the fans may not be so loyal in their support if losses come. Just like the lack of support for the basketball team when they needed it most.


No doubt, now that BSU will start playing some quality teams not a bunch of expected wins, we need to step up to the plate and deliver what is expected of us. Although I'm afraid that the stadium expansion is just one of the many things BSU needs to change. (I'm not talking about the color either).

Greedy little cuss, aren't you?


The only things I know about the internet are that it puts all the world's knowledge, entertainment and opinion before your open eyes.

And it cheeses your melon bad, check out the rage man.

At Last!!

Congratulations to our BRONCOS!! Kudos to Gene & Dr. Kustra! My wife and I are displaced Bronco fans, and we've not missed any games the Bronco's have played down here in Utah - football, basketball, etc. It's Cougar season, and the huntin' is F-I-N-E!! We're looking forward to watching the Bronco's keeping the Utes running, and having Cougar hides in the trophy case. Anybody have good Cougar recipes?

Does our Wrestling team stay in the PAC-11/16/whatever? Hopefully our young women will get good enough to give Utah's Red Rocks Gymnastics team some good competition as well!

Oh, and so long to the Van-dulls... Now they can stop worrying about getting crushed by us - just by Fresno State, Nevada, and probably by Utah State as well. Come to think of it, I really won't miss the annual cheese and WHINEfest.

IT"S going to get even better

Wait until MWC gets the Kansas schools and instatutes a Championship game. Even more revenue. The TV deal will be renagotiated for more $ and when MWC gets the AQ status that's even more $$ coming into the MW which means a slice to BSU ofcourse. I feel more excited than a little girl.

TV contract

At least part of your Dish Bill will be invested back into the BSU athletic program. It beats having Dish or direct TV and only small amount going back to BSU.


If there were a way to block this stuff I'd do it.


The only things I know about the internet are that it puts all the world's knowledge, entertainment and opinion before your open eyes.

And it cheeses your melon bad, check out the rage man.

oh well

For someone whos spends alot time in hotel rooms traveling, appears I'll not be watching BSU games much on tv with no ESPN. No Nv games anymore to travel to which is the most fun of all games. Oh well before this is over with Utah and TCU probabley gone the tv contract they have will blow up anyway.
Oh well---there was a time, about 6 years I didnt watch them or go to games after they became div 1aa so guess I'll watch the other boys on tv and just make it to the bowl game they play in. Go Broncos

remember Fresno St bowling

If I remember right, beating Fresno St & being tied with them and seeing we were new boys on the block (WAC)they went bowling and we stayed home. Wonder if history repeats its self.

big boys win again

----big boys win again--MWC will NOT get 2 bcs teams in 2011 and I doubt ever will. We had the big boys squirming last year with 2 teams there, but everyone thinks this will let them play for number 1. The worst thing about playing in MWC is all their whining--- Utah beating Ala----give me a break Utah & MWC
BSU fan

You're wrong

As soon as MWC becomes AQ, they absolutely can get two schools as long as they are top 12. It will happen, but granted MWC will most likely have to be AQ first. That's with 10, if they expand to 12 and some schools end up not playing other schools you could also have two in that way as well. So to say never is very Naive.

MWC Schools

The best thing the MWC ever did was add TCU and BSU. Both schools improved their status substantially. If they continue at this pace, the conference could indeed become a BCS school. This would not hurt the feelings of the BCS either and may have had something to do with this move in fact. If the MWC is a BCS conference then it will be a while before you hear the phrase BCS buster again. Unless maybe Fresno or Reno step it up and follow suit, or perhaps the occasional Hawaii.